Presentation Details

The Second International Conference on New Directions in the Humanities

Gender, Educational Credentials, and Income Inequality in Late Career

Carolyn Perrucci, Rich Hogan, Autumn Behringer.

Following Charles Tilly (1999), we suggest that white men in the U.S. monopolize occupations and educational credentials to the extent of their organizational capacity (power) and their anticipated rewards (pay off). Thus, white U.S. women generally fare better in managerial rather than professional positions with academic rather than practitioner credentials. Support for this line of argument is found in a national cohort of older workers in the United States, for whom we estimate Ordinary Least Squares regression models for white men and women, predicting employment income by educational credentials and employment status, controlling for additional variables. Both women and men enjoy the income benefits of professional positions with the most valuable professional credentials (the J.D. or M.D.), although both gross and net effects are much more substantial for men. Unlike men, however, few women obtain the M.B.A. or benefit financially from having it. Additionally, unlike men, women do not realize higher earnings from self-employment, or from self-employed professional status, but do claim significant earnings advantages from the Master's degree and additional advantages from managerial positions when holding a Master's. White women also claim substantially larger and more significant advantages from earning a Ph.D.


Carolyn Perrucci  (United States)
Professor of Sociology
Department of Sociology and Anthropology

Carolyn C. Perrucci is Professor of Sociology at Purdue University, where she received the MS and Ph.D. in sociology. She then moved from Assistant to Full Professor, and served as Department Head from 1998-2003. She also served as Chair of Women's Studies and Associate Dean of the Graduate School. Dr. Perrucci received the Schleman Award and Violet Haas Award for service to women, and the Outstanding Teaching Award in the her department. She conducts survey research on the economic status of retirees, and graduate educational attainment.

Rich Hogan  (United States)

Purdue University

Autumn Behringer  (United States)

Purdue University

  • Gender
  • Education
  • Income
  • Inequality
  • Career

(Virtual Presentation, English)